Role of human teacher in web-based intelligent tutoring systems


  • Dr Kinshuk Massey University
  • Ashok Patel De Montfort University
  • Reinhard Oppermann University of Koblenz
  • David Russell De Montfort University


online learning, distance education, e-learning, distance learning, technology-enhanced learning, intelligent tutoring systems


The advent of the Internet as a global communication medium has brought about a new focus on an area of research in designing intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), that has not been adequately considered so far mainly due to the localised nature of most academic environments. The area is brought into focus due to the need for adaptation to local contexts in the case of ITS used by students in different parts of the world. The issue, however, is not limited to the use of academic resources at vast distances only. There is bound to be a distinction between the roles of "ITS designer teacher" and "ITS implementer teacher", with those involved possessing different personality attributes, styles, and preferences. Researchers frequently come across teachers who distrust the ITS as embodying the beliefs of the ITS designer and not their own pedagogy. This paper argues for the need of a Human Teacher Model in the ITS which provides adequate consideration of the attributes and role of a human teacher - both as a designing collaborator and a teaching collaborator within a joint cognitive system consisting of the ITS, students and human teachers.

Author Biographies

Dr Kinshuk, Massey University

Senior Lecturer, Information Systems

Ashok Patel, De Montfort University

Director, CAL Research and Software Engineering Centre

Reinhard Oppermann, University of Koblenz

Researcher, GMD German National Research Centre for Information Technology and Professor, Social Computer Science

David Russell, De Montfort University

Principal Lecturer, Accounting and Finance, Leicester Business School